The common trend in courts is to maintain records of landmark cases and use them as a basis for determination of similar occurrences. Such cases further serve to inform practitioners and students in law on the considerations made in order to reach the decision made by court. Supreme court of India has in this regard made a number of landmark decisions that students need to know about. In the case of T.V. Eachara Varier Vs. Criminal of the Home 1978 CriLJ 86, a case had been filed regarding the disappearance of a final year student by his family. Facts of the case indicated that the student was arrested, detained and killed by the police. The supreme court, in this case, found the police officers liable for the offense and they were sentenced to life in prison. After an appeal, the punishment was quashed by the supreme court.
Three guards assigned to the protection of the prime minister made a conspiracy to have her killed. One of the guards was killed in the event while the other two were arrested and charged in court. The court found the two guilty of murder and sentenced them to death and an appeal was made to the supreme court. They made an appeal to the supreme court but the judgment was upheld.
In 1985, a case of gender equality and divorce as known within the Indian Muslims was brought before the court. The case famously known as “Shah Bano Case” involved a famous lawyer who disowned his wife and children. A lower court ruled that the wide should receive Rs 25 per month as maintenance. An appeal on the matter in the supreme court indicated that religion was wrongly cited and increased the allowance awarded to the wife.
The supreme court of India also made a landmark ruling on a case famously known as the Bhopal Gas Tragedy. In a case filed by MC Mehta, the company was required to stop production of dangerous gases and compensate the affected persons. Weight was added to the case after there was an explosion in the factory that resulted in deaths and injuries. Based on this, the court ruled that the company should offer the victims with compensations and further cease production of the gas.
The case of Judges transfer is another landmark ruling made by the supreme court. The case was to ascertain where the powers to appoint and transfer judges lie as per the constitution. By interpreting the constitution, the supreme court ruled that the chief justice has powers to appoint and transfer judges within the powers accorded. The cited chapters as read by the supreme court also directed the chief justice to offer guidance to the president on all matters of appointment of judges.